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 Producing Assessed Coursework

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مُساهمةموضوع: Producing Assessed Coursework   الإثنين مارس 26, 2012 1:23 pm

[]Producing Assessed Coursework
2011-2012


A Guide for Undergraduate and Masters students
in the School of English Studies

Introduction 2
Working on your essay 2
Preparation 2
Researching 3
Structuring 4
Writing 5
Scheduling your work 6
Mistakes to avoid 6
Plagiarism (copied or derivative work) 7
Using other people’s work 8
Independent research 10
Frequently Asked Questions 13
Presentation 15
Format 15
Titles 15
Quotations 16
Dissertations 16
References and Bibliography 17
Checklist for Writing Your Work 22
Checklist for Formatting and Submitting your Work 23
Appendix A: Instructions for Electronic Submission 24

Updated September 2011

Introduction

Most of your modules will require some element of assessed coursework to be submitted, through an essay, project or seminar presentation write-up. This coursework cannot be successfully completed the night before it is due: you must plan and take care in your work to achieve your best. Writing is an individual and often an idiosyncratic pursuit, and it is not possible to specify the ‘right way’ to write an essay. But following these guidelines will give you the best chance of making the most of your own skill, research and commitment.

These guidelines generally represent the School’s policy and practice on coursework. However, if they happen to be in disagreement with specific directions given by your tutor or module convenor, you should give priority to your tutor’s directions, and ask his or her advice if you’re unsure of how to proceed.

Your attention is particularly directed to the section on Plagiarism. The University takes the academic offence of plagiarism extremely seriously. You have already signed an undertaking to abide by the University’s and the School’s regulations in this area, and this guide gives more information on how to write and make use of other people’s work without committing plagiarism.


Working on your essay

Preparation

The minimum preparation necessary is to know what the main focus of the module is, and what your primary texts are about. You gain this knowledge by

• reading your primary texts (not necessarily in exhaustive detail at this stage);
• participating fully in your lectures and / or seminars;
• making sure you’re aware of any secondary reading recommended by your tutor;
• asking your tutor if you’re unclear about any aspect of your work (all tutors have office hours, and will see you at other times if you make an appointment).

Writing on a text you haven’t read is always a bad idea,
even if you’ve read the secondary material on it.

Researching

1. Choose the question / title that most interests you and / or that you feel most competent to answer. (You will sometimes be asked to compose your own title, in consultation with your tutor.)
2. Decide what primary texts you will be writing on, paying attention to any instructions as to number, genre, etc (‘any two novels’, ‘one novel and one poem’) included with the questions. It is better to proceed in this order than to choose a text first and then terrorise a reluctant question into being relevant to it.

Avoid the ‘short-cut’ of writing on a text you know backwards (e.g. something you’ve done for A-levels). The essays are invariably poor. Bear in mind also that the text you really like is not necessarily the most appropriate one to use.

3. Read your chosen texts again, with the question in mind, making notes on relevant points. Write down any ideas on the structure / content of your essay that occur to you as you’re reading – you’ll forget them otherwise.
4. Consult any secondary reading recommended by your tutor. You might also look for secondary reading your tutor hasn’t recommended: some fields (like Shakespeare or Victorian literature) are vast, and nobody has read all of the material available. Be careful, however, that you don’t give too much weight to out-of-date or unscholarly work.
5. Secondary material should rarely, if ever, be read straight through. Use the index and the table of contents to identify areas of interest. Follow up references to other critics or texts, if you feel it would be useful. Make notes of useful ideas, and transcribe short, relevant quotations that you might use in your work.

When taking notes, always keep a note of the title, author, bibliographical details and page numbers of the work you’re consulting. Keep notes from critics physically separate from your notes of your own ideas on primary texts – ideally in different notebooks or computer files. This is a useful precaution against ‘unintentional’ plagiarism.



Structuring

1. The basic structure for your essay consists of an introduction and a conclusion separated by a series of paragraphs each progressively developing your argument. You knew this already.
2. The introduction should identify the topic of your essay, the approach you intend to use, and the texts(s) or materials that you will be writing on. It is also possible to use the introduction to grab the reader’s attention by some eye-catching statement, quotation or statistic, but this can back-fire. Read it over to yourself to be sure it’s not going to alienate your reader. The introduction is not intended to contain broad generalisations about your topic, your material, your views on the material, or anything else.
3. The conclusion should be short, and include a brief summary of the argument you’ve developed in the essay. It should not contain anything which contradicts the rest of the work, or any new ideas or points that you’re not going to discuss in detail.
4. The argument developed in the main body will be dictated mainly by the question or title you’ve chosen. It’s often logical to move from the general to the particular in your work, starting with a short survey of the critical, theoretical, literary or cultural context for the text(s) before moving on to make particular points. But, be sure to keep relating the individual points back to the main context and focus of your essay as you proceed.
5. Where the title requires you to write on or compare two or more texts, you should structure the essay around the argument you’re making, considering each successive point in relation to each text, rather than giving each text a separate section of your essay.
6. Each paragraph should contain one point, fully explained, accompanied by the evidence you’re offering for your statement.


Your module tutor or convenor will be happy to discuss a single essay outline or draft if you make an appointment to see them.

Outlines should be no more than a single side of A4 in 10 point Verdana font. Draft work should not exceed 25% of the overall word limit for the assignment and may consist of continuous prose or extracts from a larger piece of work.





Writing

This is usually the most difficult part of the process, and also the most difficult to advise on. Bear in mind the following points:

• Don’t include irrelevant information. For instance, it is usually not helpful to start an essay on ‘Dickens's use of romance motifs’ with a page of biographical information on the author, or a paragraph on the general characteristics of Victorian England. You should also avoid making statements to the effect that Dickens is well-known, successful, good at writing, the greatest Victorian novelist, etc.

‘Telling the story’ of your play, novel or poem is invariably a mistake. Assume the examiner knows the plot, and go on from there.

• Do make sure you're answering the question as asked. What you should produce are points relevant to the question, including specific examples chosen from the text to support your argument, and, where appropriate, references to relevant criticism by other scholars.
• Do make use of secondary sources, lecture notes and points made in seminars, but do so with care. If your lecturer made a general point, using a specific textual example, you might, for instance, look for different examples of the point to use in your own work. The same might be done with regard to points gained from secondary reading.
• Don't use other people's ideas as a substitute for your own, no matter how well-expressed they appear or how carefully you've referenced them. Instead, use them as starting-points for your own arguments. ‘X argues that Dickens's heroines are “childlike, sexless angels”; however, this view overlooks the prominent role of characters such as Estella’ is much better than ‘as X argues, Dickens's heroines are generally childlike and asexual’.
• Do, in all cases, provide a reference for all quotations from other texts, but don't forget you also have to acknowledge ideas taken from the work of others. Information that is generally known does not require to be acknowledged, but specific ideas must be attributed to their owner. A statement to the effect that India was a colony of the UK during the nineteenth century does not need to be referenced; using the concept of ‘hybridity’ in discussing this colonialism requires a note citing the work of Homi K. Bhabha. If you are in any doubt about whether or not you should acknowledge your source, it is safer to include a reference.
• Do, in writing an essay, distinguish between primary evidence and secondary comment or criticism. ‘Evidence’ comes from the text, performance or piece of language about which you are writing in your essay. ‘Comment’ or ‘criticism’ is what other people have already written about it (or what you might have heard in a lecture about it). You should use comment and criticism to stimulate your own ideas and help develop your own argument. You should cite ‘evidence’ in support of your argument, and not the published views of critics (just because someone says something in print doesn’t make it true). You should then follow your argument through to its conclusion, acknowledging your debt to the ideas of other critics without being derivative (see Mistakes to avoid, below).
• Do make sure that you are using the correct system of presentation, referencing and bibliography (see relevant sections in this Guide).
• Don’t stop work when you have finished writing. Go to the checklist at the end of this guide, and ensure that you can answer ‘yes’ to all the questions there before you hand in your coursework.


Scheduling your work

During your studies, you will inevitably find that two or more pieces of coursework are due on the same day or within a short period of one another. You will receive your coursework information and deadlines well in advance, and it’s up to you to plan your work so that you have time to complete each task successfully.


Mistakes to avoid

These are some of the more common errors to be found in students’ coursework. Some are due to producing work too quickly (remember it’s your responsibility to schedule your tasks), some to laziness or bad practice. All detract from your eventual performance, and all can be easily avoided if you take time and care to think about what you’re doing.
• Errors in syntax, spelling and punctuation will lose you marks in any assessed work, whether coursework or examination. If you don’t know how to use common punctuation marks (especially the apostrophe, the comma and the semi-colon), find out.
• If you are, or suspect you might be, dyslexic and you haven’t consulted Student Services for academic support, do so now. More information is available at:
http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/academicsupport/

Use the spell-checker on your computer.

• All writers have at least one persistent fault: individual words over-used or incorrectly used, sentences too long, etc. Know what yours are, and check for them before you hand in your work.
• Absent or improperly presented references or bibliography will result in your essay losing marks (see section on References and Bibliography).
• Material must not be substantially repeated within module assessments, or from one module to another. If you have written an essay on King Lear and submitted it as the piece of assessed coursework for one module, you must not write using the same or a similar approach on the same play for another piece of coursework, for an exam on the same module, or for any assessed work on any other module, whether during the same semester or at any other time. If you are in any doubt on this point when choosing your topics, you should consult with your module tutor, as repeated use of material might result in one or other piece of assessed work being awarded no marks.


Plagiarism (copied or derivative work)

This is the most serious offence you can commit, and could lead, in extreme cases, to your expulsion from the University. All plagiarised material will be given a mark of 0, and derivative work will be marked down severely.


It is utterly wrong to copy out phrases, sentences, paragraphs or chapters from a book or article and to pretend that it is your own writing. Where you have used another person’s writing, you must indicate that you have done so – by quotation marks where appropriate and by correct referencing –giving full bibliographical information (author, title, source or publisher’s details, date, page numbers) to allow the reader to find your source and check your use of it. See the sections on Using other people’s work and References and Bbibliography.


• If your work is derivative (i.e. mainly drawn from other people’s ideas) it will not be awarded a good mark, notwithstanding the quality of the material or the fact that it is not actually plagiarized. It is bad practice to make extensive, uncritical use of the arguments of others, even if you use quotation marks and acknowledge your sources – your essay should not be simply a patchwork of critics’ opinions.
• It is also bad practice to make extensive, uncritical use of the arguments of others, even if you rephrase these in your own words.
• On the other hand, it is good essay practice to enter into an argument or discussion with the critics. Normally, a good literary essay will have a bibliography which lists the primary sources and a few, pertinent critical works. A very long bibliography is not necessarily a sign of a good essay. Occasionally, it may be appropriate to write an essay without any consideration of what others have said about the topic, but you should consult your tutor first.

Using other people’s work

There are three principles to bear in mind:
• Do acknowledge other people’s words or ideas.
• Don’t reproduce ideas unquestioningly, even when you’ve acknowledged them.
• Do use these ideas to help you think of ideas of your own.

Read the following example, and make sure you understand the difference between good and bad practice:

Edna Longley has written an essay titled ‘“Inner Émigré” or “Artful Voyeur”? Seamus Heaney’s North’, in Poetry in the Wars (Newcastle upon Tyne: Bloodaxe, 1986), pp. 150-69. In one paragraph, she writes:

The prototype developed by ‘The Tollund Man’ is a scapegoat, privileged victim and ultimately Christ-surrogate, whose death and bizarre resurrection might redeem, or symbolise redemption for, ‘The scattered, ambushed / Flesh of labourers, / Stockinged corpses / Laid out in the farmyards…’. Here Heaney alludes particularly to Catholic victims of sectarian murder in the 1920s.

Each of the extracts below makes a different use of this paragraph. Some are legitimate; some are not. Read them carefully.
• It is clear that the prototype developed by ‘The Tollund Man’ is a scapegoat, privileged victim and ultimately Christ-surrogate. Heaney alludes here to Catholic victims of sectarian murder (no quotation marks, no footnote). [This is plagiarism. If your essay contains this kind of appropriation of someone else’s words, you will certainly get a mark of 0 for the work and may face a range of other penalties up to expulsion from the University.]
• In ‘The Tollund Man’, Heaney makes reference to Catholic victims of violence, and presents the body as a scapegoat or a Christ-like figure (no footnote). [This is also plagiarism. The re-phrasing does not alter the fact that the original writer’s ideas have been used without acknowledgement.]
• Edna Longley describes the Tollund Man as ‘a scapegoat’ and ultimately a ‘Christ-surrogate, whose death might redeem, or symbolise redemption for’ more contemporary ‘victims of sectarian murder’ (accompanied by a footnote giving full details of the source). [This is a perfectly legitimate use of Longley’s work. If you do not add to it, however, your essay will be derivative and will not gain very good marks. Try to develop the critic’s material with some thinking of your own. Do you agree with the critic? If not, can you say why not, and provide evidence from the text? If you do agree, can you think of some other instance of Heaney’s work, or that of another writer on the module, to which you could apply Longley’s idea?]
• While critics have frequently noted the connection between religion and violence in Heaney’s poetry [note cites Longley’s work with full details], the extent to which he frequently distinguishes ‘religion’ from ‘sectarianism’ is often overlooked. [This is also a legitimate use of critical material to establish a context for your own discussion of a related, but different, point. Writing like this requires some confidence in your own abilities and judgement, but with practice you should develop this.]

If you are careless in taking notes from books (especially if working under pressure), it is possible inadvertently to include material that is not yours without crediting it. This will not be accepted as an excuse: it is your responsibility to make sure you have specifically acknowledged all use made of other people’s work.



Independent research

For most modules, there will be a reading list to follow. However, certain modules and dissertations will also require you to find books and articles yourself on a chosen topic. One of the simplest ways to start is by taking a book or article on the topic which you find important, and follow up the bibliography or interesting references in its footnotes. If you find that several authors are mentioning a particular work, it is probably worth reading. Or you can strike out on your own, by using the ‘keyword’ searches in the various databases mentioned below.

Books

To find a book in the library, go to http://aleph.library.nottingham.ac.uk and follow the instructions. You can search by author, title or keyword.

Journals

If you have an article’s bibliographic reference already, you need to search under the journal title, not the author’s name or article title. For example, if the reference is Fredric Jameson, ‘On Magic Realism in Film’. Critical Inquiry 12 (Winter 1986): 301-25, you need to search for Critical Inquiry. Some journals have abbreviated titles, such as ELH (English Literary History) or MLQ (Modern Language Quarterly).

Go to http://aleph.library.nottingham.ac.uk and click ‘journals’. When you have found the journal and its location, keep a note of the article’s volume number or year when you search for it on the shelves. For the article above, you will need to find volume 12 of Critical Inquiry.

If the journal title says ‘[electronic resource]’ or ‘SFX’ after it on the catalogue, click there, and by inputting the volume number or author name in the search menu, you can see the article online. Sometimes you will be offered a choice of which electronic journal database you want to use (e.g. JSTOR, Project Muse). If one database is difficult to use, go back and try the other.

However, if you do not know exactly what article you are looking for, you will need to use one of the special article-finding indexes through the e-Library gateway, at http://metalib.library.nottingham.ac.uk/. You will need to sign in using your Novell name and password (the same as for your e-mail).

From the ‘Find Database’ gateway, select the ‘Titles’ tab rather than ‘Subjects’, then search for the following databases:

• The Arts and Humanities Citation Index (WoK)
• The ABELL index, tucked inside the Literature Online database
• MLA International Bibliography.

For access to some of these databases you will need an Athens password, available from the duty librarian.

Logging in to any of these databases then allows you to search by keyword or topic. They will return a list of articles which have the author’s name, the title and the journal name, date and volume. When you have made a note of articles which look interesting, you then need to search by the journal title using the normal Nottingham catalogue as before.

If you want to browse a full list of the useful electronic databases in English, click on the ‘Subjects’ tab, then choose the category ‘Arts and Humanities’ and sub-category ‘English’.

Newspaper articles

Searching for newspaper articles (for example, recent book reviews in the Times Literary Supplement) follows the same procedure as for journal articles but uses different databases:

• Palmer’s Index to the Times
• Times Literary Supplement centenary archive (including full text)
• The Guardian

Poems and short texts

If you are unsure of where to find a poem or short primary text, search with the Literature Online database (as above). Literature Online is a full text, searchable database of most published works between 1450 and 1799, and has a very good selection of works thereafter, though it doesn’t include some twentieth-century works still in copyright.

What if the library doesn’t have what I need?

Search for the item using the combined national academic libraries catalogue at www.copac.ac.uk. This is an almost comprehensive catalogue of the nation’s holdings, including the British Library, and it will show you what libraries have which books. Once you have found the item and its location, you can get hold of it in two ways:

1) click on the ILL section of the Nottingham library homepage to request the book from another library. This service can take a few weeks, so make sure it’s what you want. Undergraduates may sometimes need to ask for their tutor’s authorisation.

2) go and find the book yourself. Your Nottingham library card entitles you to read during the vacations at most UK academic libraries (and often librarians will let you in during term, too). Especially if you live nearby, this can be a very effective way of getting important reading done in peace and quiet.

Students doing dissertations may occasionally need to consult material in the British Library or other copyright libraries (the Bodleian Library, Oxford, Cambridge University Library, and the National Libraries of Wales and Scotland). These libraries have their own entry requirements and you should check their websites. Some may require a letter of authorisation from us, which we are happy to supply.


Frequently Asked Questions


1. Q. Does the word-count include quotations or footnotes?
A. Yes, it includes both. However, it does not include the bibliography/references list, headers and footers, the question/title-page, or figures and tables.

2. Q. How many poems (plays /examples) do I need to include?
A. Where the title or question does not specify a number, decide in relation to the approach the essay requires. Are you going to examine a single text in great detail? Are you going to examine a theme or concern over a broad range of texts? Are the texts long or short? If you are asked to write on, e.g., ‘a selection of poems’, some of these should be works not covered in detail in lectures or seminars – you need to develop your own ideas as well.

3. Q. How many critics do I need to read?
A. Check the module bibliography for any critical reading described as essential. Read it. After that, aim to read at least two works (and possibly more, depending on the length of your essay) relevant to the question you have chosen. After that, you will eventually come up against the law of diminishing returns – read as much as you have time for.

4. Q. Should my essay contain my own opinions or be entirely from critics?
A. This is a false dichotomy. You will, in almost all cases, be making use of critics’ ideas. You should be questioning these ideas and testing them against the evidence of the text, etc. Your own ideas, or ‘opinions’, are often the most interesting thing about your essay, but only when they have been developed and supported in a scholarly way, with reference to the text, its social / cultural / historical / theoretical context, and the opinions of others. If your ‘opinion’ can be reduced to ‘I don’t like this text because it’s boring / too long / not a novel’, don’t include it.

5. Q. Are there sites on the internet that sell essays?
A. Yes – any of the following:
<http://www.a1-termpaper.com/>
<http://www.schoolsucks.com/>
<http://www.researchcentral.com/>
<http://www.cheathouse.com/>
There are others. You are unlikely to find anything of use to you on any such site. Even if you did, submitting an essay you have not written is plagiarism (see earlier section).

6. Q. Will I be found out if I submit one of their essays as my own?
A. Yes. Of course, you can always use these essays as a resource for your own writing, quoting from and acknowledging them in the usual way. This is not recommended, as the essays tend to be far below the standard required of our students.



Presentation

Format

• Coursework should be word-processed on white A4 paper, using Verdana font, point size 10, and double-spacing. In order to do this you will normally have to use the University computing facilities, if you don’t own your own computer. You should be aware of the need to keep back-ups of your work, and to plan for delays and times when computers are greatly in demand. Computer failure will not be accepted as an extenuating circumstance if your work is late.
• If you cannot word-process a piece of work, you must ask your module tutor's permission to submit it hand-written. You should write on alternate lines, on one side of the page. Make sure your writing can easily be read.
• Begin new paragraphs with indentation.
• Pages should be numbered.
• Include a page header on every page with your name, module code and module title at the top right hand side.
• Include the word-count (the word-processor will provide it): you will be asked to enter it on the coversheet when you submit your work. You may go 10% either side of the word-count given in the specific instructions for your piece of work.
• Do not use plastic folders or binders to hold your work; staple pages together instead.
• Always keep a copy of your work, and keep safely the receipt you will be given when you hand in work to the General Office. It is your only proof that you have completed the assessment required.
• Quotations should not be italicised, underlined or otherwise differentiated unless they appear in that form in the original text (see Quotations below for further guidelines).


Titles

• In the text of your work, titles of books (fiction or critical), plays and long poems should be italicised (or underlined if you are handwriting): The Waste Land, King Lear, Great Expectations, The Poetics of Science Fiction.
• Titles of short stories, short poems and articles in books or journals should be in quotation marks: ‘The Dead’, ‘Among School Children’.

Never use italics and quotation marks together when distinguishing a title.


Quotations

• Quotations of less than four lines should be run into the text of your work, enclosed by single quotation marks: ‘The man spoke’.
• Use double quotation marks for quotations within quotations: ‘He said, “I'm leaving now”, and went’.
• Short verse quotations should have each line separated with a forward slash: ‘My heart is like a singing bird / Whose nest is in a watered shoot’.
• Longer quotations in prose or verse should be set off (indented), and do not require quotation marks – see the extract from Edna Longley in the section on Using other people’s work, above. Be sure to quote exactly, even where the text you are copying does not conform to standard grammar, punctuation or presentation.
• Where you need to shorten a quotation, or amend the structure to fit in with the grammar of your sentence, use ellipses and square brackets. Compare the examples below:

 ‘Juliet is never extravagant in the way of Romeo, but she, too, undergoes a change’.
 Unlike Romeo, Juliet ‘[was] never extravagant’.
 In writing that ‘Juliet is never extravagant … but undergoes a change’, A.N. Other overlooks a significant episode.

• Make sure you have retained the original meaning of your quotation. If you ascribe to A.N. Other the quotation that ‘Juliet is … extravagant’, you are committing the academic and sometimes legal offence of misrepresentation.
• Quotations should not be italicised, underlined or otherwise differentiated unless they appear in that form in the original text.


Dissertations

Dissertations follow exactly the same style of formatting, referencing and bibliography as a shorter essay, though the bibliography/references will be more comprehensive. Your text should include page numbers, and should have a title page with your name on it. However, you need a contents page only if the person reading your work will need to jump around various sections within it. Dissertations do not require any special binding.


References and Bibliography


For the purposes of referencing, English Studies is split into linguistic and literary categories and referencing conventions are different for each. In general, coursework for English language and applied linguistics modules has to be formatted and documented according to the Harvard system, while coursework for modules taught in drama, literature and medieval studies should be formatted according to the MHRA system. You should regard learning to use these different systems as a professional skill: most of your teachers will be familiar with at least two systems, as different journals and publishers have different preferences for referencing systems. If you are in any doubt as to which system you should use for a particular module, you should consult your tutor.

The key referencing conventions of each system are given below.


English Language and Applied Linguistics Style-Sheet

1. References within the text
These are documented by author’s name and date, plus a page number if you have included a direct quotation.

• Where the reference is a citation rather than a quotation (i.e. a summary reference to a general argument), this is all the information required, and should appear in this format: Bell (1992), in his study of the language of the news media, asserts that… .

• Where you have quoted (or where your citation refers to a specific passage in a long work), you should include the page number(s), like this: According to Fowler (1993), ‘Each particular form of linguistic expression in a text – wording, syntactic option etc – has its reason’ (4).

• Where the author’s name does not appear in the sentence, it should be included in the parenthetical reference: (Fowler 1993: 4), (Aldiss & Wingrove 1986: 33), (Carter et all 1997: 33). The second and third references refer to a text with two authors and a text with more than two authors, respectively.

• Where you refer to more than one work by the same author and with the same date, label them – (1992a), etc – and be sure to include the same labels in your list of references.
2. List of References at the end
All your references must be documented in a References list at the end of the essay. This list must contain only texts you have mentioned in your essay. They should be arranged, in alphabetical order by the first author’s surname, according to the following relevant layouts:

A monograph
James, E. (1994). Science Fiction in the Twentieth Century. Oxford: OUP.

A book by two authors
Brown, G & Yule, G. (1983). Discourse Analysis. Cambridge: CUP.

An edited volume
Scannell, P. (ed.) (1991). Broadcast Talk. London: Sage.

A work published in more than one edition
Wardhaugh, R. (1998). An Introduction to Sociolinguistics (3rd edn). Oxford: Blackwell.

An article in a book
Stubbs, Michael (1984). ‘Applied discourse analysis and educational linguistics’. In P. Trudgill (ed.) Applied Sociolinguistics. London: Academic Press. 99-999.

An article in a journal
Chafe, W.L. (1974). ‘Language and consciousness’. Language 50: 111-133.

An electronic publication
Treadwell, James (2000). ‘The Legibility of Liber Amoris’. Romanticism On the Net 17. [23 August 2000] http://users.ox.ac.uk/~scat0385/17liber.html. [Note the inclusion of the date you read the article – because net resources may be often changed or relocated – as well as the date of the article itself.]

Never use footnotes.
Use an endnote for any extraneous material you absolutely canot leave out. Ideally, all your material should be relevant, and all relevant material should be included in the text of your essay.

For further examples of the Harvard citation system, see:
http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/nursing/sonet/rlos/studyskills/harvard/index.html


Drama, Medieval and Modern Literature Style-Sheet

1. Footnotes or Endnotes
Quotations or citations within a text should be referenced by footnotes or endnotes, recording precisely the source and author of any words you have quoted or ideas you have cited.

The first reference to any text should give full bibliographical details, in the general order of Author, Title (Placename: Publisher, date), p. 111.

Follow the examples below.

A monograph
1. Declan Kiberd, Inventing Ireland (London: Jonathan Cape, 1995), p. 383.

An article in a book
2. Terence Brown, ‘Ireland, Modernism and the 1930s’, in Modernism and Ireland: The Poetry of the 1930s, eds Patricia Coughlan and Alex Davis (Cork: Cork UP, 1995), pp. 36-7.

An article in a journal
3. Fredric Jameson, ‘On Magic Realism in Film’, Critical Inquiry 12 (Winter 1986): 302-3. [Note that journal page numbers are given without the p. or pp. abbreviations.]

Something quoted by another writer
4. Patrick Brantlinger, Rule of Darkness (Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1988), p. 36; quoted in John McClure, Late Imperial Romance (London: Verso, 1994), p. 41

For later references to a work already cited, give the minimum information necessary to locate it, usually the author’s surname, short title, and page number:
5. Kiberd, Inventing Ireland
6. Brown, ‘Ireland’, p. 36.
[Note that format of title follows the first reference.]

If you know how to use ibid. and op. cit., do so if you wish. If you are not sure, don’t. In any case, the short-title system given above is often easier to follow.

NB. Endnotes or footnotes start with the author’s name in normal format (A.N. Other); entries in your bibliography (see below) start with the author’s name in reverse order (Surname, First-name).
2. Quotations from Plays
Where a play text contains line numbers, footnote references should be given in the form:

William Shakespeare, Hamlet, ed. Harold Jenkins (London: Methuen, 1982), Act I, sc. Ii, 11. 45-7.

Where a play text does not contain line numbers, footnote references should give page numbers:

Brian Friel, Dancing at Lughnasa (London: Faber and Faber, 1990), p. 24.

3. Bibliography
The bibliography is an essential part of every literary essay you submit. Every text you have read should be listed, even if you have read nothing other than a single primary text. Follow the examples below, noting that the author’s surname is the first element in each item. The list should be in alphabetical order according to the following relevant layouts:

A monograph
Foster, John Wilson. Fictions of the Irish Literary Revival. New York: Syracuse UP, 1987.

An edited volume
Ellmann, Richard, ed. The Artist as Critic: Critical Writings of Oscar Wilde. U. of Chicago, 1969.

A volume edited by two people
Williams, Patrick, and Laura Chrisman, eds. Colonial Discourse and Post-Colonial Theory: A Reader. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1994. [Use the names in the order they appear on the title page.]

A new edition of an old work, edited and re-published
Corelli, Marie. The Sorrows of Satan, ed. Peter Keating. Oxford: OUP, 1998.

A modern re-issue (not a new edition) of an old work
Joyce, James. A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. 1916. London: Paladin, 1988. [Note the original date of publication, and its placement.]



A book published in more than one edition
Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 5th edn. New York: MLA, 1999.
[You should always specify the edition you’ve used. This is also the most useful guide to consult if you have encountered some problem in formatting your notes or bibliography not covered by this style-sheet.]

An article in a book
Brown, E.K. ‘E.M. Forster and the Contemplative Novel’. E.M. Forster: The Critical Heritage. Ed. Philip Gardner. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1973. Pp. 369-78.

An article in a journal
Jameson, Fredric. ‘On Magic Realism in Film’. Critical Inquiry 12 (Winter 1986): 301-25. [If the journal you’re citing has several issues per volume, number them like this: English Studies 12.ii (1988): 1-15.]

An electronic publication
Treadwell, James. ‘The Legibility of Liber Amoris’. Romanticism On the Net 17 (February 2000). [23 August 2000] http://users.ox.ac.uk/~scat0385/17liber.html. [Note the inclusion of the date you read the article – because net resources may be often changed or relocated – as well as the date of the article itself.]


For further examples of the MHRA citation system, see:
http://www.mhra.org.uk/Publications/Books/StyleGuide/download.shtml


Presenting information accurately and consistently, in the style and format appropriate to the occasion, is a skill that you will still need long after you’ve graduated. It takes just as much time to give details in the wrong format as it does to present them correctly. Take the time now to become familiar with the formats required by the School of English Studies, and practise using them whenever possible, even when taking notes for your own use.


Checklist for Writing Your Work


Before you submit your coursework, make sure you’ve answered ‘yes’ to each of the following questions:
• Have you written (and, if necessary, re-written) your introduction so that it offers the reader the clearest possible idea of the content and focus of your essay
• Have you proof-read your work?
• …and spell-checked it?
• Are your references and bibliography presented in the appropriate format, using the relevant system?
• Have you obtained a word-count (remembering that this includes quotations and footnotes)?
• Is the word-count within the range specified by the module convenor?
• Have you acknowledged your use of other people’s work, using quotations or citations as appropriate and giving full source details?



Checklist for Formatting and Submitting your Work

You must submit your coursework by the published deadline, first electronically, and then in hard copy to the School Office. The normal deadline for submitting your work is 3.30pm, although there may be exceptions within individual modules. When you submit your work, you will be asked to sign to confirm the following:

1. The essay is word-processed using Verdana font, point size 10 and double spacing throughout.

2. The pages are numbered.

3. You have included a page header with your name, module code and module title on the top right hand side of every page.

4. You have provided an accurate word-count which includes quotations and footnotes.

4. You have acknowledged the use of other people's words and ideas throughout, using quotations or citations as appropriate and giving full source details.

5. You have submitted one copy electronically to Turnitin (See Appendix A for instructions), and one copy to the School Office, with your coversheet and Turnitin receipt.

6. You have kept a copy of this work for yourself.

Appendix A: Instructions for Electronic Submission

NB: These instructions are not applicable to Distance Learning Students


If this is your first time uploading an essay to Turnitin (www.submit.ac.uk) please follow steps 1-10 below. If you have used the site before, please go to Section C overleaf to add more modules to your existing profile.






1. Enrol at: http://www.submit.ac.uk/newuser_type.asp

2. Enter Your class ID for the module you wish to submit an essay for.

3. Enter Your class password for that module.

4. Follow the on-screen instructions to create your profile.



*See separate page of Class IDs and passwords.


5. Go to: http://www.submit.ac.uk and log in with your username and password.

6. Click on the class name you want to submit your essay for.

7. Click on the ‘submit’ button.



8. Select ‘Single file upload’ from the paper submission method menu.




9. Browse for the file to upload and click ‘upload’.

10. Check that the review panel shows the correct document to send. Click ‘submit’.

11. A digital receipt is displayed on screen. A copy is also sent to your e-mail account. Save the receipt and the paper ID it contains, as this is proof of submission.

YOU MUST TAKE THIS RECEIPT WITH THE PAPER COPY
OF YOUR ESSAY TO THE SCHOOL OFFICE.






Once you have enrolled for one class on www.submit.ac.uk you have a profile on the site. To add more classes to your profile simply log in at the above address.

This is your student homepage, showing your enrolled classes. To enroll in a new class and submit a paper:

1. Click ‘enrol in a class’.
2. Enter the class ID and enrolment password for the new module you want to enrol on.
3. You will now see this module added to your list of classes and you can submit coursework for it.
4. Repeat this process to add all your modules.
5. To upload an essay to a new class, follow the instructions from step 6.[/left]
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